The most popular policies and systems help small a

2022-08-07
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Multi pronged policies and systems help small and medium-sized enterprises out of difficulties (II)

three and four old problems still restrict the development of enterprises

1. Their own quality is not high. From the internal reasons, it is because the quality of SMEs is not high. The rapid development of small and medium-sized enterprises in China is mainly characterized by low technology level and extension expansion, and the production technology and equipment level are relatively backward. The overall quality of small and medium-sized enterprises is not high; Its own strength is limited, and the amount of fixed assets is small. Small and medium-sized enterprises' own defects lead to their low social trust and difficult financing

2. Lack of technology, equipment, talents and information required for technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises. Most small and medium-sized enterprises do not have advantages in technology, equipment, talents and information, which seriously restricts the technological innovation of enterprises. According to relevant surveys, at present, the technical level of equipment for small and medium-sized enterprises in the Pearl River Delta is less than 1% of the international advanced level, 41% of the domestic advanced level, 47% of the domestic medium level and 11% of the domestic backward level; Most enterprises generally evaluate the quality and working status of existing employees, only 1/2. Price: 13 enterprises whose price is one of the major factors considered by the purchaser are satisfied or relatively satisfied, and most lack comprehensive and professional talents with high quality. The lack of technology and talents in small and medium-sized enterprises often means the lack of information at the same time. Especially in areas with relatively backward infrastructure construction, the disadvantage of information is more obvious. The technological innovation environment and service system of small and medium-sized enterprises need to be improved. Due to the small scale of small and medium-sized enterprises, their technological innovation is highly dependent on the external environment and service system

generally speaking, there are obvious deficiencies in the following aspects of technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises in China: first, the funds required for technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises are seriously insufficient

the lack of funds seriously restricts the technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the most important reason for the lack of funds is the poor financing channels. Second, the technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises is seriously insufficient, the technological innovation ability and level are insufficient, and there are many obstacles and problems in technological innovation, which have become an important bottleneck for the further development of small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, the lack of financial support from the government to small and medium-sized enterprises is also an important reason for the shortage of funds for technological innovation of small and medium-sized enterprises, because China's extruder products are closely linked with strategic new industries

3. It is difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises to finance. The difficulty of financing has become a pain in the hearts of small and medium-sized enterprises. Due to the long-term influence of the traditional system, the problem of financing and obtaining funds for small and medium-sized enterprises has not been well solved, which has become a bottleneck problem that restricts the development and survival of small and medium-sized enterprises for a long time. The main internal reasons for the difficulty of SME loan are: the property right system is not clear; The financial system is not sound and the transparency of financial accounts is not high; The financial data is distorted, and the information between banks and small and medium-sized enterprises is asymmetric

4. Lack of effective legal protection. Under the condition of imperfect laws, small and medium-sized enterprises are in a very disadvantageous passive position in financing such as operation and development, loan and guarantee, issuance and listing of stocks and bonds, and often become victims of unfair competition in the competition with large enterprises

at present, small and medium-sized enterprises, especially those in the manufacturing industry, are facing unprecedented difficulties, including land constraints, rising prices of energy and raw materials, rising labor costs, adjustment of export tax rebate policies, the impact of the appreciation of the RMB against the US dollar, internalization of environmental costs, vicious competition caused by the homogenization of small and medium-sized enterprises, subprime mortgage crisis, credit tightening, etc. The dilemma mainly comes from three aspects

first of all, production costs are rising. The rising costs of small and medium-sized enterprises are as follows:

first, the capital cost increases. In the context of tight monetary policy, since 2007, the reserve ratio of the central bank has been raised 15 times to 17.5%, the interest rate has been raised 6 times, the benchmark one-year lending rate has reached 7.47%, and the lending rate of banks to small and medium-sized enterprises has generally risen by 30-40%

the second is the rise of labor costs. In recent years, with the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the number of employees employed by enterprises has increased significantly. The labor supply in the Pearl River Delta region is becoming tense. The problems of difficult recruitment and high turnover of employees have become increasingly prominent. In order to recruit workers and retain skilled workers, enterprises should increase wages and improve welfare treatment. Especially with the implementation of the new labor contract law, enterprises should provide workers with three insurances and pay overtime wages according to law, As a result, the labor cost of enterprises generally rises. At the same time, some regions have correspondingly raised the minimum wage standard. According to statistics, after the implementation of the new labor contract law, the cost of some labor-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises has increased by an average of 20-30%

third, the inflation pressure of external input causes the prices of raw materials and energy to rise in an all-round way. In recent years, driven by the rising prices of primary products in the international market, the prices of related products in the domestic market, such as oil, coal, steel and agricultural and sideline products, have also risen sharply, and export processing enterprises have great cost pressure. The rise in oil prices has driven up the prices of chemical fiber products. At the same time, the prices of domestic and imported cotton (information and market) are also rising sharply. In July, the ex factory price of industrial products increased by 10% year-on-year. The clamping of the gauge rod purchased from raw materials, fuels and power had a certain impact on the stretching of the clamped part, and the price increased by 15.4%

fourth, the cost of enterprise resources and environment increased. The implementation of energy conservation and emission reduction targets, the adjustment of resource taxes and the increase of environmental and ecological protection have all increased the production costs of enterprises. Especially for some small and medium-sized enterprises that failed to meet environmental protection standards or violated environmental laws in the past, the cost expenditure was increased

secondly, financing is even more difficult. For a long time, the proportion of SME loans in the total loans of financial institutions in China is only about 10%, and 80% of SMEs' working capital can not be met. Raising the deposit reserve ratio for many times will freeze a large amount of funds, reduce the total scale of credit, make bank lending more cautious, and make it more difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises to obtain bank loans. Secondly, multiple interest rate hikes will also lead to the increase of private financing interest rate. Most of the funds of small and medium-sized enterprises come from enterprise lending and private loans, so their financing costs will inevitably increase. At present, the implementation of tight monetary policy to control inflationary pressure and economic overheating has further exacerbated the financing problem

moreover, foreign trade export is blocked. In 2007, the government issued a series of policies to reduce the trade surplus, which led to a rapid decline in the growth rate of the trade surplus last year, which had a great impact on export enterprises, especially small and medium-sized export enterprises. After the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis, how to effectively solve the adverse impact of plastics on the environment has led to a decline in international demand and enterprise exports. In the first half of this year, China's export growth slowed down by 5.7 percentage points over the same period last year, and the growth rate of exports to the United States dropped by 9 percentage points over the same period in 2007. The changes of foreign exchange rate and export tax rebate rate have a great impact on the international competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises' products. Since the reform of the exchange rate system, the cumulative appreciation of the RMB has reached 20%, and the RMB appreciated 7.2% against the US dollar in the first half of this year

the latest empirical research shows that if the US import decreases by 10%, China's export will decrease by 3.5%; if the RMB real exchange rate appreciates by 10%, China's export will decrease by 7%; if the exchange rate appreciates by 20%, China's export will decrease by 10.5%. The slowdown of the world economy caused by the subprime mortgage crisis will lead to a significant decline in China's external demand and a major challenge to exports, which will undoubtedly pose a challenge to the exports of China's small and medium-sized enterprises

at the same time, the export tax rebate rate may be reduced or cancelled, and the export tax rebate rate of some traditional industries has dropped sharply from 13% to 5 ~ 8%. Under the dual pressure of exchange rate and tax rebate rate, a considerable number of traditional manufacturing enterprises are in trouble

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